Civil engineering is the oldest of the main branches of engineering. The title “civil engineering” was first used about 1750 by John Smeaton, an English engineer. Civil engineers plan and supervise the construction of buildings, bridges, waterways, streets, highways and sewerage systems. Other civil engineering projects include railroads, tunnels, dams, canals, airports and irrigation systems. Civil engineering should be familiar with the many materials used in the structures he builds.
Materials used for structural purposes should meet several requirements: they should be hard, durable, fire-resistant and easily jointed together. The most commonly utilized materials are divided into three groups: a) main building materials such as concrete, steel, wood, brick, stone; b) binding materials such as lime, gypsum and cement; c) materials used for decoration. Construction work is growing from year to year. To build at a great speed builders are widely applying industrialized building methods.
Any Civil engineer should be familiar with all modern advanced methods of building. Today industrialized building has become the leading and the most effective trend. At present the houses are fully assembled from prefabricated standardized components. Precast building units are assembled at a site all the year round at any weather. The site work is then reduced to a minimum. Large-panel construction one of the industrialized building techniques was first used in the Soviet Union. It consist in the application of prefabricated reinforced concrete panels one or two storeys high.
Travelling shuttering is another method, applied at the construction sites. It consists in erecting the building both from bottom and upper floors. Builders of Lithuania, Latvia, Moldova widely use this advanced method. Each house has its own attractive appearance there. Nowadays the profession of a builder plays an important role in our society. It attracts many numbers of people. New methods of construction need new technique. Any civil engineer should know modern construction technique to be a highly-skilled specialist.